Tetenova I. Hygienic assessment of modern technologies for solid domestic waste management in Ukraine.

Українська версія

Thesis for the degree of Candidate of Sciences (CSc)

State registration number


Applicant for


  • 14.02.01 - Гігієна


Specialized Academic Board

Д 26.604.01


The dissertation is devoted to the study of the hygienic aspects of solid domestic waste (SDW) management in Ukraine at present. In the dissertation, the theoretical generalization of the world experience and a new practical solution of the scientific problems concerning the SDW management in Ukraine have been carried out and the ways for the minimization of the negative impact of SDWon the environment and the health of the population have been substantiated. It was demonstrated by example of the landfill No. 5 in Kyiv that garbage grounds constructed on the basis of modern sanitary and hygienic requirements did not fully guarantee the sanitary and epidemic safety of such objects, however, an area of negative impact did not go beyond the standard SPZ (500 m). It was proved that the area of negative impact of the landfills goes far beyond the standard sanitary protection zone (SPZ) (500 m) and reaches 2-3 km. Analysis of the data on the incidence in the population, residing in the settlements adjacent to the landfills, showed that a negative impact of the landfills on the environment significantly affected the living conditions of the population, including health parameters. The results of the experimental investigations on the impact of the industrial garbage sorting on the morphological composition, physical-and-chemical, and biological properties of SDW are presented. It was proved that, from a hygienic point of view, a garbage sorting affected positively the quality of unutilized portion of SDW that was to be buried. After sorting, in the unutilized part of SDW, the density increases 1.4-fold, the content of organic substances capable of decomposition - by 6%. The content of heavy metals is reduced by 50-90%, and, unlike the native SDW, does not exceed their clarks and MAC in soil. The content of heavy metals is reduced by 50-90%, and, unlike the native SDW, does not exceed their clarks and MAC in soil. The materials of experimental studies on finding ways to improve the safety of storage of the unused part of solid waste after sorting at garbage sites are presented. Deep compaction (to the quality of natural soils) has been proposed to stabilize waste. Compacting of unutilized part of SWD from 350 to 1000 kg / m3 reduces the activity of biological processes in SWD by 42%; compacting - from 350 up to 1300 kg / m3 by 52%. The addition of red clay in a ratio of 1:10 followed by compaction of the mixture to 1000 kg / m3 reduces the dehydrogenase activity by 80%, but does not completely suppress enzymatic processes in the waste due to the small amount of liquid loss in the waste. The use of ash-slag of Trypylska TPP as a binding component leads to a significant reduction in moisture and a shift in the hydrogen index (pH) of the mixture to the neutral. Compacting of the mixture (10 parts of waste and 1 part of ash-slag) up to 1000 kg / m3 leads to a decrease in the level of dehydrogenase activity by 97%, which indicates the most effective way of the stabilization of the organic substances in unutilized part of SDW after sorting. The results of the laboratory and the field investigations on the possibility of the use of the enzymes of oxygenases (oxysin) class and the microbiological preparation EM-1 for the treatment of the residual portion of SDW after sorting in comparison with unsorted SDW are presented.The use of both enzyme and microbiological agents (bioremediation) leads to an acceleration of the decomposition of organic substances in comparison with natural conditions.The effect of enzyme preparations is faster in time in comparison with the microbiological ones, the effect of microbiological preparations is deeper by the degree of the destruction of organic substances. The use of enzymatic treatment leads to a significant reduction of nitrogen-containing compounds (by 40-50%), heavymetals (by 50-70%) to levels below their clarks and MPC Treatment with SDW enzymes has a detrimental effect on worm eggs, stimulates the development of mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms that process easily oxidized organic substance. There is a tendency to the improvement of the air composition by the reduction of the content of the substances that cause unpleasant smells and the possibility of spontaneous ignition (hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, carbon monoxide, phenol). As a result of treatment with enzymes, the moisture content in SDW and soil increases by 5-10%. Modern methods of reclamation and sanitation of existing landfills and garbage ground in order to reuse land plots of these objects are scientifically grounded It was proved on the basis of performed research that the organization of sites for the placement and burial of SDW by the principle of reuse of the territory of existing garbage grounds and landfills is the most promising method of SDW management for Ukraine. Waste disposal at the garbage grounds is considered as a final stage of SDW management, and according to the EU Directive 2008/98 / EC, it should take into account the prevention of waste generation or minimization of generation, maximum reuse of material or energy potential of waste.

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